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Steel Structures: Culture & Sustainability 2010

ISBN: 978-975-92461-2-9
Yazarlar: EDITORS Nesrin YARDIMCI Yeditepe University, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture Department of Civil Engineering President of TUCSA & ECCS A. Berna AYDÖNER Technical Manager of TUCSA Ph.D. Student, İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering H. Yener GÜR’EŞ Vice President & General Secretary of TUCSA Cavidan YORGUN İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Turkish Constructional Steelwork Association, Istanbul, September 2010
CONTENTS Preface XV Symposium Organization XVII Sponsors XXI KEYNOTE PAPER Fire Engineering, Architecture & Sustainability J. B. Schleich - 1 Chapter 1. SUSTAINABILITY Sustainable Steel Sections Solutions O. Vassart, G. Axmann, L.G. Cajot - 33 Sustainable Steel Structures T. A. Winterstetter, W. Sobek - 43 Sustainability of Rail and Section Production in Kardemir D. Sürmen , T. Odabaşı, İ. Tozlu - 53 The Interaction of Sustainable Building on Society, Environment and Economy of North Cyprus A. Afsharghotli, M. Çelikağ - 61 A Model Proposal for the Selection Process of Sustainable Technologic Construction Products E. Avlar, P. K. Ercoşkun - 69 Chapter 2. ARCHITECTURE Bosphorous Crossing in the Late 19 th Century; Attempts to Bridge Two Continents by Iron and Steel N. K. Pilehvarian, H. Batırbaygil - 79 Iron, Steel and Glass in Ottoman Architecture N. K. Pilehvarian - 89 Structural Explorations on the Grand Tour B. Sill - 99 Steel for Sustainable Mass Housing A. Çekmiş, I. Hacıhasanoğlu - 109 Sustainable Monumental Steel Structures Application O. Eren, Ç. Tekin - 117 From Sustainable Aspect: Steel Modular Box Building System Design O. Eren - 125 Evaluation of Structural System and Thermal Performance for a Residential Building with Structural Steel Framing H. A. Büyüktaşkın, S. F. Akşit - 133 About the History of Bridge Design C. Dicleli - 141 Chapter 3. SEISMIC & STRENGTHENING Seismic Fragility Evaluation of a Large Lattice Dome Supported By Buckling Restrained Braces S. Nakazawa, S. Kato - 151 Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Steel Braced Structures G. D. Corte, F. M. Mazzolani, R. Landolfo - 161 Ductility vs Overstrength in Robustness Based Design of Multi-Story Steel Building Frames under Abnormal Loadings F. Dinu, D. Dubina - 171 Design of Dissipative Structures for Industrial Buildings Located in High Risk Seismic Zones A. Bayram, Y. Tonguç - 179 A New Method for Calculation of X-Type Bracings N.T. Çeltikçi, Y. Çeltikçi, S. Güçlü - 187 Evaluation of the Steel Liquid Storage Tank Failures in the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake G. Yazıcı, C. Üstündağ, F. Çılı - 197 Brace Configuration Effects on Dynamic Response of Steel Buildings by Modal Testing T. Türker, A. Bayraktar - 205 Bending Behavior of Rubber-Based Seismic Isolation Bearings S. Pınarbaşı - 215 Sustainability Aspects of Steel Based Applications in Rehabilitation Engineering E. Efthymiou, I. Zygomalas, Ö. N. Cöcen, C. C. Baniotopoulos - 225 Experimental Investigation of Non-Seismic RC Frames Strengthened with BRB Steel Braces D. Dubina, S. Bordea - 235 Invention: Seismic Retrofitting by Exterior Steel Brace Structural Building Jacketing System C. Balkaya - 245 Assessment Study and Analysis of Seismic Performance of R/C Buildings Retrofitted with Steel Braces R. Shahshenas, E. M. Güneyisi, G. Altay - 253 Performance Based Evaluation of a Masonry Building of Walls Strengthened of Steel Sheathing A. Dogariu, D. Dubina - 263 Assessment of a Steel-Used Solution for the Rehabilitation of a Historical Palace F. Aras - 273 Strengthening of Historic Masonry Walls by Steel Composite Material SRP/SRG R. Capozucca, M. Curzi - 283 Experimental and Analytical Study on Retrofitting RC Frames by Knee Bracing K. Taşkın, N. Yardımcı, H. F. Karadoğan, C. Yorgun - 291 Rehabilitation of Fatigue Loaded Steel Structures by High Frequency Hammer Peening I. Weich, T. Ummenhofer, P. Knoedel - 301 Chapter 4. CONNECTIONS Semi-Rigid Steel Structures: Nonlinear Performance-Based Analysis A. E. Mathe, A.G. Popa - 311 Cyclic Behavior and Numerical Modeling of a Semi-Rigid Frame C. Vatansever, N. Yardımcı - 321 A Steel Frame Connection: I-Beam to SHS-Column by Bolted T-Stub K. Yemez, G. Altay - 331 Finite Element Modelling of a Three-Dimensional Semi-Rigid Composite Joint R. Goñi, B. Gil, E. Bayo - 341 Guidelines for Modeling Three Dimensional Structural Connection Models Using Finite Element Methods S. Selamet, M. Garlock - 351 3D Component Method for Base Bolt Joint H. Perttola, M. Heinisuo - 361 Strength of Slotted Stainless Steel Tubular Member Tension Connections G. Kıymaz, E. Seçkin - 371 Feasibility Study of Friction Connection in Tubular Towers For Wind Turbines M.Veljkovic, M. Limam, C. Heistermann, C. Rebelo, L. S. Silva - 381 Spherical and Elastomeric Bearings with Compression and Uplift Forces G. Hanswille, M. Porsch, C. Üstündağ - 389 Determining the Slip Coefficient in Slip-Critical Connection by Experimental Methods C. Vatansever, N. Yardımcı - 399 Moment Capacity of Extended End Plate Connections According to AISC and Eurocode N. D. Aksoylar , A. S. Elnashai , A. Z. Öztürk - 407 Chapter 5. FIRE Experimental – Numerical Study on the Behaviour of Steel Columns Protected with Expanded Clay Concrete Boards J. P. C. Rodrigues, L. Laím, A. M. Correia - 417 Concrete Filled Steel Hollow Columns Subjected to Fire T. A. C. Pires, J. P.C. Rodrigues, J. J. R. Silva, A. M. Correia - 427 Numerical Study on the Behavior of Steel Columns Embedded on Brick Walls Subjected to Fire A. M. Correia, J. P. C. Rodrigues, V. P. Silva - 437 Evaluation of Structural Safety Level for Fire Conditions on the Example of a Steel Beam M. Maslak - 447 Shear Stud Connections in Composite Beams – Safety Factors – Fire Case T. Domanski - 457 Fire Resistance of Perfobond Connectors J. P. C. Rodrigues, L. F. Costa-Neves, L. Laím - 465 Structural Fire Safety Engineering Study on a Car Park Located in France N. Ayme, D. Joyeux - 475 Chapter 6. COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Strength and Ductility of Concrete Encased Composite Columns C. Campian, N. Chira, V. Sav - 485 Studies on the Lifetime of Cyclic Loaded Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges G. Hanswille, M. Porsch, C. Üstündağ - 493 Lifetime Analysis of Highway Composite Bridge H. Gervásio, L. S. Silva - 503 Vibrations Induced by Human Activities in Composite Steel Floor Decks. Case Study D. Cretu, E. Tulei, C. Ghindea, R. Cruciat - 511 Chapter 7. COLD FORMED STEEL Analysis and Design of Non-Linear Semi-Rigid Cold-Formed Steel Frames T. Peköz, A. Karakaplan, A. Koç - 521 Architectural Concept of Multistorey Apartment Building in Light Steel Framing V. Murtinho, H. Ferreira, A. Correia, L. S. Silva, H. Gervásio, P. Santos - 529 Improved TWCF System for Industrial Buildings M. Georgescu, V. Ungureanu - 537 Shear Walls with Cold-Formed Steel Framing and Wood Structural Panel Sheathing K. K. Çelik, T. Engleder - 545 Evaluation Through Consisting of Component Market for Cold Formed Steel Framing System in the Field of Low-Rise Residentials in Turkey S. G. Yıldırım - 555 Chapter 8. STABILITY New Design Curves for LT- and TF-Buckling Consistent Derivation and Code- Conform Formulation R. Greiner, A. Taras - 563 Elastic Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Cellular Beams D. Sonck, W. Vanlaere, R. V. Impe - 573 An ‘Overall Concept’ for the Cross-Section Resistance in the Elasto-Plastic Range M. Kettler, R. Greiner - 583 Transverse Load Carrying Capacity of Sinusoidally Corrugated Steel Webs with Web Openings G. Kıymaz, E. Coşkun , E. Seçkin, C. Coşgun - 593 Chapter 9. CASE STUDY Sustainable Single Family House - Case Study D. Dubina, V. Ungureanu, A. Ciutina, I. Tuca, M. Mutiu - 603 A380 Aircraft Hangar with a Clear Span of 96m and the New Amiry Terminal in Kuwait Airport T. Kaya, H. Özyar, M. Akman - 613 Tosçelik Osmaniye Plant Structural Steel Construction Applications S. Korkmaz, O. Salıcı - 623 Structure for a Monorail Vehicle in Zaragoza G. Calico, A. Arnedo, A. Sanmartin - 633 Chapter 10. MISCELLANEOUS Third Party Fabrication Inspection of Steel Structures H. Önal - 641 Learning from the Evidence: Lessons About Steel and Welding 16 Years After the Northridge Earthquake D. K. Miller, S. Funderburk - 651 The Production of High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel in Kardemir İ. Tozlu - 661 Optimization of the Shape of Chord-Free Steel Towers in Connection with a Wind Load V. Gordeiev, N. Tischenko - 669 Total Potential Optimization Method Applied to Analysis of Structures Y. C. Toklu, S. C. Toklu, Ö. Ateş - 679 Collapse Load of Box Flanges with Longitudinal Stiffeners Under Uniform Compression: Comparative Study of EC3 and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Rules with Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis P. S. Ferreira, F. Virtuoso - 687 Numerical and Experimental Study of the Fatigue Strength of Bridge Girders with Flange Thickness Transitions A. Taras, R. Greiner, J. Linder - 697 Author Index 707
Önsöz: PREFACE İstanbul forms a link between the past and the future due to its long history dating back thousands of years and its geographical location. The city, also known as Byzantium, Constantinople and Konstantiniyye in the past, served as the capital of • The Roman Empire, • The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, and • The Ottoman Empire. Consequently, the remains of many ancient civilizations and their cultures can still be seen to exist in harmony in İstanbul. This enchanting ancient city has been a cultural and commercial centre providing a powerful base for multicultural lifestyles. Its cosmopolitan atmosphere has been an economical, social, technical, and artistic source of attraction through the ages, not only for its inhabitants but also for the globalized world of our time. For these unique qualities, İstanbul was selected as Cultural Capital of Europe for the year 2010 when the Annual Meetings of the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS) would also take place. These two important events gave us both the opportunity and the mission to organize a Symposium for architects, structural engineers, designers, steel fabricators and builders as well as urban psychologists, social planners and environmentalists to discuss new horizons on steel structuring in relation to contemporary culture, giving way to a new European vision for a better and sustainable future. Consequently, the international symposium “Steel Structures: Culture & Sustainability 2010” (SSCS 2010) was organized. Today’s modern lifestyle was made possible through the emergence of steel in technology. Steel made its mark in major cities of our century. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and the two bridges across the Bosphorus in İstanbul are all examples of a city skyline drawn in steel. At this point in time, the important questions we need to address are what we will leave future generations, and how we can utilize steel to the benefit of the people, the environment and culture through “sustainability”. Sustainability stems from the need to overcome environmental problems directly resulting from economical and technological development, and focuses on the preservation of the ecosystem. Sustainability in urbanization is a relatively new concept. Yet sustainable urban development is an integral part of sustainable growth. Our aim is to evaluate constructional steel, a vital building material in modern life, in terms of its effect on constructional arts and in relation to sustainability, in order to enhance professional perception. XVI 115 Abstracts were received for the symposium of which 83 were accepted. SSCS 2010 Proceeding contains 72 selected papers from 22 countries and keynote speeches. The keynote lecturers are Architect Alessandro Zoppini from Italy and Prof. Ing. Jean-Baptiste Schleich from Luxembourg. Proceeding covers historical and cultural aspects of steel structures and architecture, steel structures in relation to architectural functions and forms, sustainability, structural issues including stability and connections, constructional issues, earthquake resistance, retrofitting, seismic isolation, wind effect, fire related issues, composite structures, cold-formed / light gauge steel structures and case studies. SSCS 2010 received substantial sponsorship by major companies in the steel industry, indicating the growing strength of constructional steel in Turkey. We sincerely thank all our sponsors for their valuable support in making the Symposium a successful event all round. We would also like to thank everyone who has taken part in preparing the symposium and proceedings, including the authors, the editors, the scientific committee, co-organizers, supporting organizations, the symposium and session chairs, the symposium secretary and all Turkish Constructional Steelwork Association (TUCSA) members. To construct a building is to lay the foundations of a new civilization. We all come from different cultural backgrounds, have different experiences and different opinions, therefore we have a lot to share with and learn from one another. We believe this event will serve to increase the synergy between us, as we strive to build a stronger and more creative future - as sturdy as steel. On behalf of the organizers, I wish you all an interesting and productive meeting and hope you enjoy your stay in İstanbul. İstanbul, September, 2010 Prof. Dr. Nesrin YARDIMCI Chair of SSCS 2010 President of TUCSA & ECCS
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